martes, 8 de marzo de 2016

NUKATA EN EL OKIMI [18.217]


Huitième poema Manyōshū de Nukata no Ōkimi.



Nukata en el Ōkimi

Nukata en el Ōkimi (en japonés: 額田王 Princesa Nukata?, c. 630-690 CE) (también conocida como Princesa Nukada) fue una poetisa japonesa del periodo Asuka.

Hija de la Princesa Kagami, Nukata se hizo la esposa favorita del emperador Temmu, y daría a la luz la Princesa Tōchi (que se haría la consorte del emperador Kōbun). Inicialmente estuvo conectada al emperador Temmu, pero posteriormente se hizo una de las consortes del emperador Tenji, hermano más viejo de Temmu. No se sabe si este cambio fue voluntaria o forzada. Después de la muerte de Tenji, ella volvió a conectarse la Temmu.

Una de las grandes poetisas de su tiempo, un total de trece de sus poemas aparecen en el Man'yōshū: #7-9, 16-18, 20, 112, 113, 151, 155, 488, and 1606. (#1606 es una repetición del #488.) Dos de estos poetas fueron reimpressos en coletâneas posteriores, Shinchokusen Wakashū y Shinshūi Wakashū. Poema #9 es bien conocido como siendo uno de los poemas de más complicada interpretación dentro del Man'yōshū. [1]




Esperando a Tenyi

Cuando te esperaba sufriendo de amor,
en mi morada movió las persianas
el viento de otoño.




Faltaba la luna antes de embarcarnos

Faltaba la luna antes de embarcarnos
en Nikitatsu.
A la pleamar sale llena. ¡Vamos!

Princesa Nukata, incluida en Manioshu. Colección para diez mil generaciones (Ediciones Hiperión, Madrid, 1980, ed. y trad. de Antonio Cabezas García).



8.
           
El invierno atrás,  
la primavera ya florece.                  
Antes callados,     
los pájaros ya trinan.      
Antes cerradas,
las flores ya se abren.     
Y el monte espeso      
y tan impenetrable         
por la maleza       
que las flores esconde.    
Pero los montes de otoño...
¿ah, sus hojas que vemos         
de rojo teñidas   
y queremos tocar                   
pensando que antes verdes        
estaban en la rama!      
Por ese solo anhelo,   
los montes de otoño yo prefiero.


Fuyukomori                        
Haru sakikureba                
Nakazarishi                          
Tori mo kinaniku               
Sakasarishi                           
Hana mo sakeredo               
Yama o shimi                       
Irite mo torazu                       
Kusabukami  
Torite mo mizu                       
Akiyama no                           
Ko no ha o mite wa              
Momiji oba                          
Torite so shinou                    
Aoki oba                              
Okite so nageku                   
Soko shi urameshi                
Akiyama so are wa                

El pájaro y la flor. Mil quinientos años de poesía clásica japonesa. Edició bilingüe i il·lustrada de Carlos Rubio. Alianza Editorial, 2011





POEMS BY NUKATA (b. Ca. 638 - active until 690's) 
from "A Waka Anthology, Volume One: The Gem Glistening Cup"
translations and quoted notes by Edwin A. Cranston 
(Stanford University Press, 1993)

"Princess Nukata, one of the finest poets in the first part of the Man'yoshu, lived in the turbulent time of the establishment of the Imperial Clan as the rulers of Japan. She, like Sappho, is half legendary, but is considered to have been a divine messenger, an oracle or shamaness, and a public poet. Her greatness lies in her ability to combine in universal terms the expression of personal passion and powerful collective emotion -- and in the extraordinary beauty of her sonorous poetry, which would seem to show a long period of conscious aesthetic development from the pre-literate poetry gathered in the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki."



1

NUKATA'S PALACE HUT AT UJI

According to Edwin Cranston, poems written by royalty about thatched huts, signal the "nascent pastoralism" soon to become a dominant mode of appreciating nature and the lives of simpler people among the Nara (710) aristocracy . In fact, as Cranston points out, Japanese royalty lived in unpretentious thatched buildings until about 600.

In the autumn fields 
We cut grasses for the thatch,
And we lodged the night:
How my thoughts go back again
To our palace-hut at Uji!



2

LET'S GET TO ROWING!

In regard to the incoming tide, "scholars have calculated the date and moment of high tide as 2:00 A.M., on the twenty-third of the first month by the lunar calendar."

At Nikitatsu
We have waited for the moon
Before boarding our boat;
Now the tide is in at last --
Come, let's get to rowing!



3

SPRING MOUNTAINS, AUTUMN MOUNTAINS

"When the Emperor commanded the Palace Minister, Fujiwara no Asomi, to match the radiance of the myriad blossoms of the spring mountains against the colors of the thousand leaves of the autumn mountains, Princess Nukata decided the question with this poem."

When spring comes forth
That lay in hiding all the winter through,
The birds that did not sing
Come back and sing to us once more;
The flowers that did not bloom
Have blossomed everywhere again.
Yet so rife the hills
We cannot make our way to pick,
And so deep the grass
We cannot pluck the flowers to see.
But when on autumn hills
We gaze upon the leaves of trees,
It is the yellow ones
We pluck and marvel for sheer joy,
And the ones still green,
Sighing, leave upon the boughs --

Those are the ones I hate to lose.
For me, it is the autumn hills.



4

MOUNT MIWA

"The route out of Yamato goes north past Mount Miwa (homophonous with miwa, "offertory wine") and over the Nara Mountain, which did not yet look down on the imperial city later built nearby. Mount Miwa was the site of an ancient Shinto cult, and thus a particularly sacred spot."

O sweet-wine
Miwa Mountain
Until blue-earth
Nara Mountain's mountain crest
Should come between
And you be hidden in behind,
Until road-bendings
Should pile back upon themselves,
To the very end
I would have kept you:

O my mountain,
What right
Have heartless clouds to cover you?

Envoy

Do you dare to hide 
Miwa Mountain in this way?
At least you, O clouds,

Should have greater heart than that:
What right have you to cover it?



5

AUTUMN WIND

While I wait for you,
My lord, lost in this longing,
Suddenly there comes
A stirring of my window blind:
The autumn wind is blowing.




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